• A Comparison of Lithium and T3 Augmentation Following Two Failed Medication Treatments for Depression

    More than 40% of patients with major depressive disorder do not achieve remission even after two optimally delivered trials.

     // Andrew A. Nierenberg, M.D., Maurizio Fava, M.D., Madhukar H. Trivedi, M.D., Stephen R. Wisniewski, Ph.D., Michael E. Thase, M.D., Patrick J. McGrath, M.D., Jonathan E. Alpert, M.D., Ph.D., Diane Warden, Ph.D., M.B.A., James F. Luther, M.A., George Niederehe, Ph.D., Barry Lebowitz, Ph.D., Kathy Shores-Wilson, Ph.D., A. John Rush, M.D., STAR*D Study Team

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  • A Metabolic Basis for Fibromyalgia and Its Related Disorders

    It has long been recognized that the symptom complex of fibromyalgia can be seen with hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism may been categorized, like diabetes, into type I (hormone deficient) and type II (hormone resistant). Most cases of fibromyalgia fall into the latter category.

    // R. L. Garrison, P. C. Breeding

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  • Chronic Fluoxetine Inhibits Sexual Behavior in the Male Rat: Reversal With Oxytocin

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in widespread clinical use, induces anorgasmia and loss of sexual desire in humans (Crenshaw and Goldberg 1996). Clinical reports indicate orgasm dysfunction in up to 75% of patients.

    //James M. Cantor, Yitzchak M. Binik, James G. Pfaus

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  • Hormone Replacement Therapy in the Geriatric Patient: Current State of the Evidence and Questions for the Future

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder characterized by inadequate amounts of thyroid hormones available to meet the need for thyroid at the cellular level.

    // Holtorf, K and Schwartz, E

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  • Hormones in Wellness and Disease Prevention: Common Practices, Current State of the Evidence, and Questions for the Future

    The study and use of hormones have long been the domains of endocrinology, which is primarily focused on the pathologic phenomena encountered in the human body as they relate to hormones.

    //Erika T. Schwartz, MD, Kent Holtorf, MD

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  • How Does the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypothyroidism Differ from Other Thyroid Diseases?

    While the standard of care for most thyroid diseases has little controversy and is supported by a consistent consensus among practitioners, there is significant controversy regarding the essentially two standards of care for the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism.

    // Kent Holtorf, MD

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  • Improved Diagnosis and Management of Hyper- and Hypothyroidism by Timing the Aterial Sounds

    “Sphygmo-Recording,” a non-invasive method for timing the arterial pulse wave contour provides an objective measure of responses to medication in patients with hyper- and hypo-thyroidism.

    //Roy T. Young, Andre J. Van Herle, & David Redbird

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  • Long Term Augmentation with T3 in Refractory Major Depression

    The addition of triiodothyronine (T3) is one of the most widely studied augmentation strategies for refractory depression. Despite this there are no long term studies or studies of doses above 100 mcg.

    //Tammas F. Kelly, Daniel Z. Lieberman

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  • Low T3 Syndrome in Psychiatric Depression

    In non-thyroidal systemic illnesses (NTI), the patients are clinically euthyroid but the laboratory thyroid indices may show abnormalities in serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3 and TSH either singly or in combination (1-4). In the case of NTI subjects showing only decrease in T3.

    // B.N. Premachandra, M.A. Kabir, and I.K. Williams

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  • Natural Killer Activity and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Young and Elderly Persons

    On the basis that (1) multiple interactions exist between the hormonal and immune systems, and (2) aging is accompanied by changes in thyroid hormone metabolism and responsiveness, we postulate that thyroid hormones may be involved in the observed decrease in natural killer (NK) activity in a population of apparently healthy elderly subjects.

    // Zbigniew Kmiec, Jolanta Mysliwska, Dominik Rachon, Grazyna Kotlarz, Krzysztof Sworczak, Andrzej Mysliwski

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  • Only the Combined Treatment with Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine Ensures Euthyroidism in All Tissues of the Thyroidectomized Rat

    We have recently shown that it is not possible to restore euthyroidism completely in all tissues ofthyroidectomized rats infused with T, alone.

    // Hector F. Escobar-Morreale, Francisco Escobar Del Rey, M. Jesus Obregon, And Gabriella Morreale De Escobar

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  • Slower Treatment Response in Bipolar Depression Predicted by Lower Pretreatment Thyroid Function

    Because treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder is a clinical challenge and hypothyroidism is known to be associated with depression…

    // Daniel P. Cole, M.D., Michael E. Thase, M.D., Alan G. Mallinger, M.D., Jair C. Soares, M.D., James F. Luther, M.A., David J. Kupfer, M.D., Ellen Frank, Ph.D.

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  • Small Doses of Triiodothyronine Can Change Some Risk Factors Associated with Abdominal Obesity

    To elucidate whether the administration of small doses of triidothyronine (T3) can increase concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in obese women with different types of obesity and to evaluate the potential metabolic bene®ts of such treatment.

    // M Krotkiewski, G Holm, and N Shono

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  • The Hormone Zone

    The words “metabolism” and “metabolic health” will be used often in the course of this book. Metabolism is the underlying process within all of your body cells, both physically and metaphysically, that drives the forces that allow you to realize health.

    // Dr. John Robinson

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  • The use of triiodothyronine as an augmentation agent in treatment-resistant bipolar II and bipolar disorder NOS

    Thyroid hormone plays a role in both serotonin and catecholamine functions in the brain, and has been linked to abnormal mood states in bipolar disorder. Unlike most studies which have included only patients with bipolar I, this study evaluated triiodothyronine (T3) as an augmentation agent for treatment-resistant depression in patients with bipolar II and bipolar disorder NOS.

    // Tammas Kelly, Daniel Z. Lieberman

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  • Thyroid Function of Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Gunther Neeck & Walter Riedel

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  • Thyroid Hormone Levels & Diabetes

    Diabetic patients have a higher prevalence of thyroid disorders than the general populations.

    // Saiful Islam, Saquiba Yesmine, Shahidul Alam Khan, Nur Haque Alam, Sufia Islam

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  • Thyroid Hormone Transport into Cellular Tissue

    New research is demonstrating that thyroid hormone transport across cellular membranes plays an important role in intracellular triiodothyronine (T3) levels of peripheral and pituitary tissues and is proving to have considerable clinical significance.

    // Dr. Kent Holtorf 

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  • Uptake of Reverse T3 in the Human Choriocarcinoma Cell Line, JAr

    The uptake and eZux of reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) in JAr cells were investigated.

    // A. M. Mitchella, S. W. Manley, K. A. Rowan and R. H. Mortimer

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